Data structures and algorithms are fundamental components of computer science and play a crucial role in solving complex problems efficiently. Aspiring software developers and computer scientists often encounter these types of questions during technical interviews. In this article, we present five common data structures and algorithms questions to help you prepare for coding interviews.

Given an array of integers and an integer `k`

, write a function to rotate the array to the right by `k`

steps. For example, if the array is `[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]`

and `k`

is `2`

, the rotated array should be `[4, 5, 1, 2, 3]`

.

**Answer:** The solution involves using a combination of array reversal. By reversing the entire array, then reversing the first `k`

elements, and finally reversing the remaining elements, we can achieve the desired array rotation.

Implement a function to reverse a singly linked list. For example, if the original linked list is `1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 -> 5`

, the reversed linked list should be `5 -> 4 -> 3 -> 2 -> 1`

.

**Answer:** The solution involves iterating through the linked list while updating the pointers to reverse the links between nodes.

Write a function to perform binary search on a sorted array. The function should return the index of the target element if found, or `-1`

if the target element is not present in the array.

**Answer:** Binary search is a divide-and-conquer algorithm that repeatedly divides the search space in half until the target element is found or the search space becomes empty. It is a more efficient alternative to linear search for sorted arrays.

Implement a depth-first search algorithm to traverse a graph. The graph can be represented using an adjacency list or an adjacency matrix. DFS should visit all vertices reachable from the given starting vertex and print them in the order they are visited.

**Answer:** DFS explores as far as possible along each branch before backtracking. It can be implemented using recursion or a stack data structure to keep track of visited vertices.

Implement the merge sort algorithm to sort an array of integers in ascending order. The merge sort algorithm uses the divide-and-conquer strategy to recursively divide the array into smaller subarrays, sort them, and then merge them back together.

**Answer:** Merge sort divides the array into halves, recursively sorts each half, and then merges the sorted halves back together. It is a stable sorting algorithm with a time complexity of O(n log n).

Mastering data structures and algorithms is essential for excelling in technical interviews and solving real-world problems efficiently. By practicing these five common questions along with their answers, you can strengthen your problem-solving skills and gain confidence in tackling more complex coding challenges. Remember to analyze the time and space complexity of your solutions and strive for efficient and optimal algorithms. Good luck with your preparations and upcoming coding interviews!